During the mid-1990s, global trade agreements opened international economic markets, while internet businesses thrived. As a result, many cultural barriers vanished and the world became virtually smaller. Corporations, looking for ways to cut costs, took stock of these factors and decided that overseas labor markets might be useful in boosting the bottom line.
Large American technology corporations were among the first to take the plunge. Universities in India had foreseen the need for programmers and developers and developed information technology curriculums to fill the growing world demand. Newly graduated teams of Indian programmers came to the United States to train in American corporations.
These Indian teams, once trained, returned to India to continue work on a telecommute basis. Outsourcing jobs to India had begun. Due to the lower cost of living in India, American corporations were able to pay much less to Indian workers than to their American counterparts, thus saving hundreds of millions of dollars.
The corporate planners projected that outsourcing jobs to India would save at least 20% on labor, an enticing figure indeed.
Outsourcing jobs to India became the way to go, with most IT corporations in the U.S. following suit. By 2001, American programmers were virtually unemployable, undercut by the cheaper Indian labor. This produced what amounted to a depression for the American IT industry worker.
Corporate planners failed to anticipate several factors that ate into the savings in labor costs. Ultimately, projects ended up costing more than those done by American workers. Communication with non-native English speaking programmers half a world away proved to be a great difficulty. Time zone differences made normal work hours in India opposite that of the American management teams, resulting in massive scheduling problems. Another serious problem surfaced when programs written in India could not be readily integrated with interfacing programs developed in the United States.
After several years of intensive outsourcing, the American IT corporations began to realize that overall profits were waning, not growing. Meanwhile, American programmers and developers had been forced into new career paths, depleting IT resources in the U.S.
However, other U.S. industries continued outsourcing jobs to India, by the hundreds of thousands. From resume editors to telephone answering services, cheaper Indian labor put more and more Americans out of work.
A tightening economy and higher energy costs in the U.S. created resentment among displaced American workers. The impact of outsourcing now affects a large segment of U.S. workers.
While some corporations now still enjoy higher profits by outsourcing jobs to India, the strategy may eventually backfire. Workers in the U.S. who are laid off in favor of an overseas worker cannot afford the goods sold by these corporations. Reduced operating costs may well turn into excess inventory. So the question remains, do we want a strong economy at home, which benefits all of us, or strong economies abroad?
Thesis writing and Text checking has become computerized with the penetration of personal computers in our lives. There are a number of thesis writing software available these days. Depending upon which platform you use, you can choose software for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux. All these software rely on the TeX typesetting format, which makes it easier for the thesis software to accurately present scientific equations, mathematical formulas, economical charts and other such things, which would not be possible in a regular word processing application, like Microsoft Word.
The most common thesis software for Windows platform is the MiKTeX. This thesis writing software has been developed by Christian Schenk. It’s also compatible with Microsoft's new Windows Vista operating system. This thesis writing software is free of cost and can be redistributed freely to anyone as per the guidelines of the Free Software Foundation and the Debian Free Software Guidelines. This thesis writing software is also available on CDs or DVDs, which one can acquire if he is ready to purchase the author something from his wish list and thus become a known MiKTeX user.
Another common thesis or dissertation writing software available for Windows platform is the WinEdt. This thesis writing software is shareware and you can try it before you buy it. The main drawback with WinEdt is that even after purchasing it for a price ranging between 30USD to 70USD, you still have to install MiKTeX as WinEdt is only an intuitive front end of the thesis writing software.
If you are using the Mac OS X platform from Apple Inc. you have to look for TeXShop. This thesis writing software is software libre, available under the GNU General Public License. This means that not only is this thesis writing software available free of cost, if the researcher has any programming skills, he can change the program code of this thesis writing software to adapt it to his needs. This thesis writing software was developed by the popular American mathematics professor, Richard Koch. This thesis writing software is known for single handedly popularizing the TeX standard among the users of Macintosh computers. This thesis writing software has also won the Apple Design Award because of its ability and usefulness as a great thesis writing software for Mac, which can accurately render TeX documents containing scientific equations and formulas.
For those who are on the Linux platform, LyX is the best thesis writing software available. This thesis writing software follows an innovative approach called, What you see is what you think. This thesis writing software makes the user concentrate on matter of the thesis and takes care of the formatting itself, thanks to its support of LaTeX which is a high level version of TeX. Along with the fact that LyX is software libre, just like TeXShop, LyX is also available for users of Windows, Unix, Mac OS X and IBMs aging OS/2 platform.
Cooking and eating in the wild often brings back fond memories.
But memorable camping food ideas don’t just happen. You have to plan them well.
Planning the menu for when you enter the wilderness requires you to balance the taste, nutrition and variety of your meals. Our camping food ideas for students will hopefully stimulate your thinking.
The basic rule here - plan your meals and snacks so that they are:
You can pack your meals into breakfast, lunch and dinner bags.
Keep the meal bags light by repackaging everything into zip lock plastic bags.
The goal here is to eliminate as much packaging as possible to save on space and weight.
When you brainstorm your camping food ideas you should always consider the weight of the food you select.
One way to reduce weight is to combine some dried, dehydrated and freeze-dried food with fresh food.
Plastic containers and durable freezer bags are lighter than metal and can be reused again for the following trip.
Include meal instructions
Label the bags with the contents you include and brief cooking instructions for each meal.
Place the slip into the meal bag or tape it onto the front.
How much food will you need?
You should plan your food energy requirements around your planned activity levels.
If you plan to head out on a hike from your campsite, a general guideline to determine your daily energy requirement can be as follows:
Dealing with food spoilage
Spoilage will be a problem when camping without a cooler.
We suggest you stay away from real butter, cooked meats, and eggs.
Processed cheese will spoil rather quickly; the softer the cheese - the more likely it is to spoil. If you can’t go without cheese go for the hard cheeses like Jarslberg and Gouda.
A good place to shop for your trail mix is a health food store. They usually have a number of bins stocked with trail mixes and a variety of dried fruits, nuts and seeds for the health conscious.
Everyone has their own favorite recipe for “gorp” – Good Old Raisins and Peanuts.
This usually starts with equal parts raisins and peanuts. You then have to add different energy sources.
You can consider the following:
You can use the following suggestions in our camping food list as a reference point to create your own.
Tea, coffee, cocoa, low fat dried milk
Oatmeal, muesli, cheerios,
Pancake mix, fresh eggs for campground camping, freeze dried for backpacking
Freeze dried for hiking, canned for campground camping
Apricots, prunes, raisins, apples, cherries, peaches, pears.
Trail lunch suggestions
Beef or turkey jerky, salami
Cheese that do not require refrigeration like Gouda, or Jarlsberg
Peanuts, pecan nuts, cashews, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds
Pumpkin, sunflower, sesame
Carrots, radishes, celery, turnips
Apples, oranges, tangerines
Dried or freeze dried fruits
Dates, apples, pineapple, bananas, peaches, prunes, apricots, raisins
Breads and pastries
Licorice, chocolate, fruit bars, sesame seed bars,, cookies
Kool aid, juice crystals, cocoa.
Knorr instant, Lipton instant,
Mountain house, Richmoor, backpacker pantry,
Spices and additives
Cinnamon sugar, honey, peanut butter, brown sugar,
Cinnamon, nutmeg, curry, oregano, chili powder, garlic, black pepper, salt, dry mustard
Soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce, Tabasco sauce
How to choose your camping backpack
The first basic differentiation between yor choices of camping backpacks is between two basic styles of backpacks -
Furthermore your choice of the best backpack for hiking should be determined by whether you will require a -
You will need a multi day pack when you plan to do a trip of between 2 to 4 days in fairly moderate weather conditions.
These backpacks will typically have a load capacity of between 40 to 75 liters for men, and 40 to 65 for women.
For extended trips that are likely to last more than 4 days the average backpacker will probably need a pack capacity of 65 liters or more.
Ultralight Backpacks are designed for low weight and minimal bulk.
Backpack review tips
Choose between an internal or external frame backpack
What is the purpose of the frame in a backpack?
The role of the camping backpack frame is to transfer most of the weight of your gear from your shoulders to your hips.
The ideal weight distribution is that 70 to 80 percent of this weight should be on your hips and 20 to 30 percent on your shoulders.
Because this lowers your point of gravity, it will mean that you become more stable.
What are the advantages of internal frame backpacks?
You will notice that internal frame backpacks have a more streamlined shape because the flexible frame is inside the pack.
One benefit of internal frame backpacks is the fact that they keep your pack more stable.
The fact that they are closer to your body means that they provide you with more balance when you negotiate unpredictable terrain and are busy ducking and weaving through trees.
This makes internal frame backpacks your ideal choice when you backpack off trail or when you do some rock scrambling or mountaineering.
These packs are also easier to travel with.
Are there any disadvantages with internal frame backpacks?
Yes there are a few relatively minor drawbacks.
One of them is that these packs fit directly against your entire back. This means that they get hot and back perspiration can be a problem as a result.
Another drawback is that you cannot put much gear on the outside of the camping backpack.
That will mean that the carrying capacity of the pack is really limited to its internal volume. This will typically range from 49 to 122 liters of capacity.
Internal backpacks tend to also be more expensive than external frame backpacks.
External-frame packs are very good at transporting big, heavy and awkward loads. For instance, strapping on your tired child's backpack.
We discuss external frame backpacks in more detail elsewhere.
Choose the right backpack size
In order to assess what camping backpack size you need you firstly have to know how many days your typical backpacking trip will be. Obviously the longer your backpack trip the more packing capacity you will need.
If you plan to backpack during the colder time of the year, you will need a larger capacity backpack.
This is because the camping backpack needs to accommodate extra clothing, a warmer sleeping bag and possibly a heavier tent with extra poles.
Determine how much room you will need for your backpacking gear
If you have already own all your backpacking gear you will select a pack that can accommodate your current gear.
As a typical backpacker gains outdoor experience they tend to learn how pack lighter gear that is more space-efficient in the pack. They will for example replace a synthetic sleeping bag with a lighter down model and so learn to travel lighter
What is the minimum gear I need to carry in a camping backpack?
The minimum items you should consider when you consider plan your safety and basic comfort requirements will at least include:
For a more extensive list of possible backpacking gear you can have a look at our backpacking checklist. This list is very detailed and merely a reference point for when you plan a longer trip.
Your approach to backpacking will also impact the size of your backpack.
If you are an ultra light backpacker you specifically choose to give up some conveniences in order to minimize their pack weight.
You will look for gear that offers the minimum features you need that is also innovatively designed to reduce weight.
When you do not mind carrying a bit more weight you pack gear that will optimize your convenience and comfort.
The tradeoff for this is that you are prepared to carry more weight in your backpack.
We spend all our year working hard, looking forward to a vacation. We have gone through a hard winter. Rain, wind and other inclement weather. Come the summer, rather than put our feet up or spend some time in the relative lap of luxury by visiting some exotic resort and relaxing or taking gentle exercise at some good quality hotel, what do some people do. Go camping!
Sorry for the sarcasm. But one of the things I have never been able to understand: if you have a choice, why in heaven’s name would you want to spend two weeks sleeping under and on canvas with the possibility of some vile insects invading your personal parts, kids screaming if it starts raining, walking incredible distances to reach basic hygiene stations, cook the breakfast in the open air, get stung by alien flying creatures? Need I go on!
Many of you will certainly disagree with my sentiments. You may argue that there is nothing better than “going back to nature”, plenty of fresh air, and spending quality time with the family. That’s as maybe. But no-one will convince me that anyone would actually prefer to do go on a camping trip than spend two weeks of comfort and come back completely refreshed from your vacation.
I grant you that it is good to learn what it means to live outside for a while and learn basic “survival” skills in the open air. That’s what the Boy Scout movement is very good at teaching. But surely we can leave the survival instincts to some greedy individuals to be seen by millions of viewers on some third rate TV show. Sorry to be so cynical.
I appreciate that some folk have tight budgets and therefore hotel holidays are not the order of the day. I certainly understand their reasoning in their selection. However, it would probably be true that the majority of folk who do choose this incredibly tedious form of vacation, would do so to simply save money.
I am also prepared to accept there are people who actually enjoy camping and good luck to them. However, I must ask this question: If you had the opportunity to choose a reasonable resort to stay at, with an good type of hotel, with all expenses paid - or select an all expenses paid holiday on a camping site for two weeks. Which one would you choose? I’m afraid if you choose the latter, then I would have doubt your integrity.
Comfort is comfort and I repeat what I said in my first paragraph, after a year working hard you need to recharge and have complete rest. No one will convince me that two weeks in a tent will wipe away all the stress that goes with a full-time job.
You have probably guessed that I have had a bad experience while camping which I am not going into here, but even after taking that into consideration, I cannot see any useful relaxation purpose to be gained from camping. To those who enjoy the under canvas, outdoor life, good luck to you and happy camping!
Joanne Cramer is a surfer, tattoo addict, ukulelist, Saul Bass fan and independent Art Director at Student Questions platform. Producing at the sweet spot between art and purpose to answer design problems with honest solutions.